By E. Prichard
Chemists in academia and clarify terminology common in analytical chemistry, supplying additional info than the easy definition yet no longer explaining how one can make measurements. They comprise definitions which are now not present to aid readers of older files. Examples are supplied typically. The cross-referencing is ample. allotted within the US through Springer Verlag.
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Most standards and reference materials are supplied with a date estimated by the manufacturer after which they should not be used. Expiry date is the date after which the chemical should not be used. There is often a difference in expiry date depending on the physical state of the chemical. When determining an expiry date, the analyst should take into account the frequency of use of the standard. The number of times the bottle is opened or aliquots removed and the temperature at which it is stored will have an impact on the integrity of the standard.
Minor corrections can then be made to the calibration to allow for day-to-day drift. Two other terms commonly used in the laboratory are primary and secondary standards. Primary standard is defined as a “standard that is designated or widely acknowledged as having the highest metrological qualities and whose value is accepted without reference to other standards ol‘the same q ~ a n t i t y ” . 6 Primary standard Arguably, the ultimate primary (chemical) standard is silver (often referred to as ‘five-nines’ grade).
1 j or spiked samples Plot response of a set of solutions of known concentration against their concentration Analyse CRM Analyse spiked sample matrix Selectivity Precision (1j Repeatability (2j Reproducibility Ruggedness Repeat analysis of either a CRM or a homogenous sample Several laboratories carry out repeat analyses of either a CRM or a homogenous sample Identify components of the procedure that require special control Table 1 contains examples of what needs to be checked in the process of method validation and the procedures that could be followed.