By Robert H. Nelson
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Extra info for An Introduction to Feeding Farm Livestock
Discoveries of new vitamins have been made in recent years, and some which were thought to be single substances have now been shown to consist of several. Brief notes on some of the main vitamins are given below. 1. Fat-soluble vitamins (a) Vitamin A is a general growth-promoting vitamin which also helps the animal to resist disease. It is not present in the plant as 34 The Constituents of the Dry Matter: Vitamins 35 such, but the animal is able to build it up from the yellow pigment carotene, found in the green parts of plants.
12. What are villi and where are they found? 13. What is the function of the caecum and where is it found? In which class of stock is the caecum most important? 14. What is the main function of the large intestine—apart from the caecum? 15. Draw diagrammatic representation of the digestive system of the pig, horse, and ruminant, and label the parts. 16. Why is it the pig cannot digest fibre? 17. Why must fibrous feeds fed to horses be of the highest quality? 18. Of the four parts of the stomach of a ruminant, which is the largest and what is the capacity (in litres) of the stomach system of adult cattle?
The horse has a normal pair of lips but the top one in particular is very sensitive and mobile. This lip is used to "feel" the food and guide it towards the mouth. The incisor teeth are able to crop herbage closely with a scissor like action. The horse is well supplied with molar or grinding teeth with which to masticate the food before swallowing. 40 An Introduction to Feeding Farm Livestock The cow and the sheep, which are also herbivorous (grazing) animals, have no incisor teeth in the top jaw, just a hard pad—the dental pad.