By H. N. Wilson
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The authors also describe the separation of the methyl esters of all the normal fatty acids from C 6 to C 1 6 in one run. The above account gives a brief resume of analytical developments in one industry. Other tests were of course used, for sulphur and phosphorus, by some form of dry ashing followed by the usual tests, for starch by its colour with iodine, and for matter insoluble in petroleum ether, which would include part if not all of any resin present, and qualitative tests for specific substances were known.
Most of this kind of work is now taken over by micro-analysis, and not much use is made of macro-analysis, except perhaps for control tests. Micro-analysis and the use of physical methods have completely transformed the organic analysis laboratory in the last twenty years, in almost all industrial and most other laboratories. REFERENCES 1. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Soaps, 5 th edn, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Butterworth, London (for International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), 1964.
It was soon found that substitution was liable to take place as well as addition, and that some compounds known to be unsaturated did not react. W e now know that the position of the double bond, especially its nearness to a polar group such as —COOH, or to other double bonds, particularly in a conjugate double bond system, is of immense importance. In the lack of our theoretical knowledge, the early analysts had to do the best they could. One of the most important steps was taken by Hübl, who found that addition of iodine is catalysed by the presence of mercury salts.