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The energy of fracture is described by the area encompassed under this graph up to the point of fracture. Porosity Measurement The Archimedes water absorption test was used for determining the porosity of the fired components by means of water infiltration. Samples were suspended in boiling water for two hours, and samples were weighed before and after. The apparent porosity can be determined, using equation 1, using the mass of a dry, immersed and infiltrated test piece in water (6). In equation 1,7ta is the apparent porosity (%), mi is the mass of a dry test piece (grams), m2 is the apparent mass of immersed test piece (grams) and 1113 is the mass of infiltrated test piece (grams).

The precursor film was dried at 150°C for 5 min, and then calcined at 400°C for 1 h (heating rate: 5°C/min) in an O2 flow. After five drying and calcining cycles, the film was crystallized at 650-700°C for 30 min in an O2 flow using a conventional tube furnace (10°C/min). To fabricate PZT/CFO/PZT layered films, five coating layers of PZT and CFO were alternately deposited as a single unit. The detailed coating and heat-treatment schemes are shown in Fig. 1. The coating and calcining cycles were repeated 15 times (10 times for PZT and five times for CFO) with three heat treatments for the crystallization of each PZT and CFO layer, resulting in a layered PZT/CFO/PZT film thickness of approximately 600 nm.

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