By M. Rafiqul Islam, S.H. Mousavizadegan, S. Mustafiz, Jamal H. Abou?Kassem(auth.)
Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation
upload precision and simplicity to the method of reservoir simulation. until eventually simulation software program and different equipment of reservoir characterization have been constructed, engineers needed to drill quite a few wells to discover tips to extract crude oil and traditional fuel. at the present time, inspite of hugely refined reservoir simulations software program to be had, reservoir simulation nonetheless consists of loads of guesswork. Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation presents a complicated method of petroleum reservoir simulation, taking the guesswork out of the method and depending extra completely on technological know-how and what's identified concerning the person reservoir.
This state-of-the-art ebook in petroleum simulation:
Describes answer innovations that let a number of recommendations to the entire equations, with no linearization.
Solves the main tough reservoir engineering difficulties resembling viscous fingering.
Highlights the significance of non-linear solvers on determination tree with clinical argument.
Discusses answer schemes in terms of different disciplines and revolutionizes hazard research and determination making.
comprises significant other software program with 3-D, 3-phase multipurpose simulator code on hand for obtain from www.scrivenerpublishing.com.
by means of delivering a worthwhile instrument to help reservoir simulation predictions with genuine technological know-how, this publication is an important reference for engineers, scientists and geologists.
Chapter 1 Reservoir Simulation heritage (pages 1–30):
Chapter 2 Reservoir Simulator?input/output (pages 31–81):
Chapter three Reservoir Simulators: difficulties, Shortcomings, and a few answer innovations (pages 83–114):
Chapter four Mathematical formula of Reservoir Simulation difficulties (pages 115–153):
Chapter five The Compositional Simulator utilizing the Engineering procedure (pages 155–244):
Chapter 6 A finished fabric stability Equation for Oil restoration (pages 245–276):
Chapter 7 Modeling Viscous Fingering in the course of Miscible Displacement in a Reservoir (pages 277–337):
Chapter eight in the direction of Modeling wisdom and Sustainable Petroleum creation (pages 339–419):
Chapter nine ultimate Conclusions (pages 421–422):
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Extra resources for Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulations
Intangible cost of groundwater and air pollution resulting from petroleum activities; c. Clean-up cost of accidental oil spills; d. Costs related to inherently deficient engineering design; e. Costs related to political constraints on energy pricing. 28 ADVANCED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR SIMULATION The comprehensive economic model will allow one to evaluate a project based on its merit from economic as well as environmental and social values. Even though political constraints constitute a part of social models, it is well known that petroleum policies are more acutely dependent on world politics (Baade et al, 1990; Stickey, 1993).
It can be noted that the thermal stress occurs as a result of the difference in temperature between injected fluids and reservoir fluids or due to the Joule Thompson 18 ADVANCED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR SIMULATION effect. However, in the study with unconsolidated sand, the thermal stresses are reported to be negligible in comparison to the mechanical stresses (Chalaturnyk and Scott, 1995). A similar trend is noticeable in the work by Chen et al (1995), which also ignored the effect of thermal stresses, even though a simultaneous modeling of fluid flow and geomechanics is proposed.
For reservoir simulation studies, this translated into the use of higher accuracy through inclusion of higher order terms in Taylor series approximation as well as great number of grid blocks, reaching as many as a billion blocks. The greatest difficulty in this advancement is that the quality of input data did not improve at par with the speed and memory of the computers. As Fig. 3 shows, the data gap remains possibly the biggest challenge in describing a reservoir. Note that the inclusion of large number of grid blocks makes the prediction more arbitrary than that predicted by fewer blocks, if the number of input data points is not increased proportionately.